Find out if you’re at risk for osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a “silent” disease. It usually isn’t recognized until a fracture happens. In fact, many spinal fractures don’t have obvious symptoms. People may seek help for back pain or discomfort without recognizing these as warning signs of a possible fracture. That’s why if you’re a woman over 50, it’s important to find out if your bones are getting weaker before a fracture happens.

Measuring Bone Density

Measuring Your Bone Mineral Density

In postmenopausal women over 50, the main test for osteoporosis is a bone mineral density test. Bone mineral density, or BMD, is how much bone mineral, such as calcium, is in your bones. Low bone density means your bones are more porous, or airy.

One common test doctors use to determine bone density is a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan — also called a DXA scan or DEXA scan. The result of a DXA scan is a T-score, which is an early predictor of fracture risk. Your doctor can give you a DXA scan, or may send you to a hospital or separate location to get one.

Along with a DXA scan, a doctor may use the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®). FRAX incorporates risk factors such as family history, fracture history and more.

To help you understand your risk for fracture, select from the options below. You will then be taken to another site which will calculate your risk using the FRAX assessment tool.

FRAX is a registered trademark of the Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK.

Choose Language

First select your language. Then, use the Calculation Tool drop-down at the top of the FRAX page. Select from the options that best reflect you.

Understanding Tscore

Understanding T-scores

T-scores compare a woman’s BMD with the average BMD of young, healthy women. If you haven’t had a fracture, T-scores can tell you how much you are at risk — and prompt you to talk about osteoporosis treatment options with your doctor.



Normal, Healthy Bone

T-score: -1 and above


Bone With Osteopenia, or Low Bone Mass

T-score: -2.5 to -1


Bone With Osteoporosis

T-score: -2.5 and below

Often, there are no warning signs for osteoporosis until a fracture happens. However, osteoporosis is preventable and treatable. Getting your BMD measured is a good way to find out if you have low bone mass, or osteopenia, which may increase your risk for future fractures.